(1) an approach which involves a great deal of learner autonomy, in respect of resources, activities, and objectives. It is thus aligned to self-directed learning and to discovery learning but most commonly in group activity; (2) learning which involves role play, simulations, often within virtual environments.
a term used for those school activities which may take place, often on a voluntary basis, outside the timetabled curriculum. Typical examples would be lunchtime and after-school clubs of various sorts, school trips, holiday clubs. Some see the distinction as a false one but it could be said that they are distinguished by rarely, if ever, involving explicit 'learning outcomes' or assessment, for example (see extracurricular).
the modern term for teacher training, aimed to avoid the more narrow connotations of training by stressing the more expansive nature of education. The term also aims to indicate that this sort of development does not cease at the pre-service stage but that all teachers will be expected to be involved in continuing professional development. Undergraduate courses are either 3 or 4 years in length, while courses for graduates are generally of one year's duration. Part-time and distance versions are also now on offer.
a form of collaborative professional development, based on the 'medical rounds' model in hospitals. Here, teachers visit a classroom or other teaching space to observe some agreed aspect of practice. The activity is non-judgemental and non-evaluative: instead, what is observed becomes the subject of analysis and discussion by the observers, with the purpose of improving their own practice.
in education, an approach to learning where new material is not taught in serial order but in a mixed, or integrated, way. For example, instead of learning new topics A, B, and C, by focusing first on A, then B, and then C, an interleaved approach would vary the pattern from one to another and back again. It is claimed to aid better retention.Some sceptics argue that its benefits may only apply to certain types of learning, such as factual knowledge.
any action intended to stop a process from developing or to improve a situation. In education, this occurs in many areas including that of behaviour management and teaching approaches. Research studies into the effects of such interventions are often highly-prized but as with all educational issues the extent to which such interventions can be replicated or the effects generalisable are always questionable (see early intervention).