zero budgeting

a budgeting system in educational management where the allocation of funds is assessed anew, with no assumptions made that previous principles or arrangements will apply, and so all existing activities are judged in the same way as new proposals.

zone of proximal development

a term from the work of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) for the gap between what a learner (a child) can accomplish independently and what they can accomplish when they are interacting with others who are more competent.