the intended outcomes of teaching: statements of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of these desired goals. They tend to be more specific than aims, often involving the observable or the measurable. While seen as important for effective teaching, their mechanistic and slavish use has been criticised as leading to a rigid approach which limits the dynamic, exploratory nature of many learning experiences.
duty; what is required
a generally pejorative term for the way in which the exclusive social and business relationships of former pupils of certain (usually independent) schools are used to preserve privilege and secure advantage.
a generally pejorative term for the system of networking conducted by former pupils of certain (usually independent) schools to secure mutual personal, social and business advantage.
an approach to organisation associated with progressive education whereby individual classrooms are replaced by larger more flexible teaching areas, allowing for different groupings of learners and different roles for staff. Perceived benefits are countered by those who point for the need for much more extensive planning to co-ordinate activities and avoid situations where a music lesson, for example, occurs at the same time as an activity requiring silence. It is also a term used for office space, where staff are accommodated in larger communal areas as opposed to having individual offices. Unless staff are expected to be working in teams at all times, the advantages of this approach are not clear except in terms of efficiency of space and managerial surveillance.
a question that is phrased so that more extended responses are required than a single word answer (see closed question; divergent; open-ended).
of a question, not inviting a single, correct answer; divergent. Of a contract, not having a set time limit ( see divergent; open question).
a term from the work of Jean Piaget (1896-1980), referring to a mental process by which a learner can combine, separate, and transform information in a logical way. In the earlier stages of learning, Piaget uses the term preoperational to refer to the way in which such a learner is confused by appearance, struggles to decentre their thinking, and muddles issues about causation and consequences, owing to a nonlogical approach.
the cost of a decision made, incurred to an organisation or programme, through foregoing alternative choices.