gender

sexual identity; a grouping such as male or female. The term tends to be used in relation to social and cultural categories whereas sex tends to be used in a biological sense.

generalisability

usually related to research findings or statistics, the fact of being more widely applicable than merely to the particular instance in question; the inferring of a principle or rule from particular findings.

gestalt

a unified whole that cannot be derived from a summation of constituent parts. It features in theories of learning which emphasise the way learners make sense of the world in meaningful wholes and not as atomised simple ideas/perceptions which are then amalgamated.

global

worldwide. Metaphor for total, complete, or widespread, as used in the term 'global learning difficulties', for example.

globalisation

growth to a global or worldwide scale. It is often used with reference to the ways in which dominant western economic, social, and political ideas and practices have become internationally prevalent and highly influential.

governance

the act, manner or function of governing.

governmentality

a term from the work of Michel Foucault (1926-1984) which refers to a form of activity intended to guide or shape conduct in a variety of contexts, and the rationalisation of such activity; mentalities of rule; how we think about governing ourselves and others.

governors

the body of people elected and co-opted to manage schools. It is a term in use in the English system, and more widely in the independent schools sector.

grade point average

a term from the US educational system: a measure of scholastic attainment figured by dividing the grade points earned by the number of credits attempted.

grading on the curve

where assessment is conducted so that there is a normal distribution of learners' results, with most around the mean and a few at either pole.

grammar school

a term in use since the middle ages, originally indicating a school offering a classical curriculum. More recently it refers to an academically oriented school, usually with entry determined by selection - the 11-plus exam in England, the qualifying exam in Scotland. These were abolished following the introduction of comprehensive schools in 1965, but some areas of England have retained or re-introduced them.

grant-aided

the term used in Scotland for direct grant schools.

grants

an amount of money which is given to a person or body for some purpose, for example a student grant, or a block grant from central to local government.

grounded theory

a method of qualitative research which endeavours to operate by having theory 'emerge' from the data rather than approaching data with theory or preconceived concepts. Its attempt to be more naturalistic by drawing its theoretical framework and related concepts from the participants themselves is not without its critics.

groupthink

a term for the phenomenon whereby members of a group may suppress disagreement, fail to consider alternative suggestions, ignore the wider, practical implications of their thinking, adopt a uniformly consensus approach which may result in poor decision-making.

groupwork

an approach to teaching where collective tasks are assigned to groups of learners, although the completion may still be on an individual basis (see co-operative learning; collaborative learning).